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Molecular diagnosis and its development trend

Feb 21 , 2020

Molecular diagnosis is a technique that USES molecular biology to detect changes in the structure or expression level of genetic material in a patient. Molecular diagnosis is the main method to predict the diagnosis. Molecular diagnosis mainly refers to the detection of various structural proteins, enzymes, antigens, antibodies and immunoreactive molecular genes encoding diseases. The detection objects are mainly nucleic acid and protein, mainly nucleic acid molecular diagnosis.

Molecular diagnosis and its development trend

molecular diagnosis test bottle

Molecular diagnosis technology can accurately diagnose related genes that cause diseases and predict disease susceptibility before the onset of diseases. Compared with other in vitro diagnosis technologies, it has the advantages of faster speed, higher sensitivity and stronger specificity. It can not only be widely used in infectious diseases, blood screening, genetic diseases and molecular diagnosis of tumors, but also replace other in vitro diagnosis technologies in some application fields, becoming an important development and research direction in vitro diagnosis technology.

Countries around the world attach great importance to the development of molecular diagnostic techniques, gene chip will become the mainstream of the development of a new generation of molecular diagnostic reagents. Gene chip is the combination of molecular biology, microelectronics, computer and other disciplines, a combination of a variety of modern sophisticated technology, known as "the ultimate product of the diagnostic industry" experts. The gene chip has the function of detecting multiple targets at the same time. Therefore, gene chip has become the main development direction of the new generation of molecular diagnostic reagent, but its high cost, difficult development, few product categories, only for scientific research and drug screening purposes. There are still some technical defects in the large-scale clinical application of gene chip, which are mainly due to the low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the chip, high diagnostic cost of the chip and high price of the supporting instrument of the chip. Globally, although only a few chips can be used for clinical diagnosis, domestic gene chip technology has been in the world's leading position. Gene chip technology will be the most challenging potential rival of fluorescence quantitative PCR detection technology, mainly: fluorescence quantitative PCR can only detect one or several target genes at a time, while gene chip technology can simultaneously detect a large number of target genes. With the development of the human genome project, gene chip has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. If the gene chip technology is rapidly mature and large-scale industrialization, it will have a great impact on the fluorescence quantitative PCR detection. However, the large-scale clinical application of gene chip still has unsolved technical defects, mainly due to the low specificity and sensitivity of chip diagnosis, the high cost of chip diagnosis and the high price of chip diagnostic instruments and other reasons, it is expected that the fluorescence quantitative PCR detection technology in the next 5 to 10 years can maintain the lead.

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